第一宗罪：无因果联系The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification. The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B, the former event is responsible for the latter. (The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. However,...
第二宗罪 Insufficient-sample The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion (The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future t...
第三宗罪: 错误类比 (based on a false analogy )The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there is much dissimilarity as well. For example, A..., however, B......
第四宗罪 all things are equalThe author commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a conclusion that.... The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at differ...
第五宗罪 Either-Or choiceThe author assumes that AA and BB are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both AA and BB might produce better res...
第六宗罪 survey is doubtfulThe poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or when, where and how the poll was conducted. (Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of responden...
第七宗罪 gratuitous assumption The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that.... However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. For example, it is more likely that.... Therefore, this argument is unw...
开头段模板 The conclusion endorsed in this argument is that... Several reasons are offered in support of this argument. First of all' what's more' of equal importance is that. At first glance, the author's argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals th...
结尾段模板 To conclude, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. Accordingly, it is imprudent for the author to claim that. To make this argument logically acceptable, the author would have to show that. In addition, to solidify the conclusion, the author should provide concret...
选择性样本攻击 A threshold problem is that the author provides no evidence to claim that the general group as a whole is of the same characteristic. The example cited, while suggestive of this trend, is insufficient to warrant its truth because there is no reason to believe that the...
While Noble Sissle may be best known for his collaboration with Eubie Blake, as both a vaudeville performer and as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying an independent career as a ...
For any triangle T in the xy-coordinate plane, the center of T is defined to be the point whose x-coordin...
When hypnotized subjects are told that they are deaf and are then asked whether they can hear the hypnotist, t...
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requir...
It follows, therefore, that continued production of the drug must inevitably_______the ibora’ s extinction.