In Forces of Production, David Noble examines the transformation of the machine-tool industry as the industry moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation. Noble writes from a Marxist perspective, and his central argument is that management, in its decisions to automate, conspired against labor: the power that the skilled machinists wielded in theindustry was intolerable to management. Noble fails to substantiate this claim, although his argument is impressive when he applies the Marxist concept of “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled the automation of the machine-tool industry. In automating, the industry moved to computer-based, digitalized “numerical control" (N/C) technology, ratherthan to artisan generated “record-playback" (R/P) technology.
Although both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor, Noble clearly prefers R/P, with its inherent acknowledgment of workers’ skills: unlike N/C, its programs were produced not byengineers at their computers, but by skilled machinists, who recorded their own movements to “teach" machines to duplicate those movements. However, Noble's only evidence of conspiracy is that, although the two approaches were roughly equal in technical merit, management chose N/C. From this he concludes that automation is undertaken not becauseefficiency demands it or scientific advances allow it. but because it is a tool in the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor.
According to information in the passage, the term "de-skilling" refers to the
1.According to information in the passage, the term refers to the
A. loss of skills that are lost to industry when skilled workers are replaced by unskilled laborers（未提及）
B. substitution of mechanized processes for labor formerly performed by skilled workers
C. labor theory that automation is technologically comparable to skilled labor（未提及）
D. process by which skilled machinists “teach" machines to perform certain tasks（是R/P，不符）
E. exclusion of skilled workers from participation in the development of automated
选项B，定位原文：the Marxist concept of “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled labor—to the automation of the machine-tool industry. 雷哥网的打字员真的很差劲，而且也没有文字校对！
According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?
【OG19-P387-452题】According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?