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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P453-590题】

Which of the following statements about Clark’s study of the telephone exchange can be inferred from information in the passage?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友tptR5uU提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:08:11 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
A错误,此处的Braverman’s analysis与文章谈及telephone exchange的第一段和第三段无关
B错误,与“劳动者和管理层之间的冲突”无关
C正确
D错误,equally没有提及
E错误,带有明显标志only

题目讨论 10条评论)

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    Mariposa爱学习

    JC观点中:technology变化一部分源于管理者和工会商议,另一部分变化源于tech本身能力和性质
    SC故意扭曲JC观点
    0 0 回复 2020-11-15 22:35:14
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    yolanda8

    定位于:At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems altered
     work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers.就是overall operation 同义转换
    1 0 回复 2020-04-22 12:11:06
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    庄子不想醒

    排除A只需要把握一点:clark是一个学者,而不是杠精。学者的研究目的是解决问题,而不是为了反驳某个人,只不过他的研究结果刚好与B的观点有出入
    4 0 回复 2019-12-29 12:34:04
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    847716opn

    Work=operation; worker=organization
    0 0 回复 2019-09-27 09:09:52
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    917410

    这个属于600~650的题????
    0 0 回复 2019-09-23 21:58:11
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    行走的喵

    定位题,依据题干中的 about Clark’s study of the telephone exchange直接定位第一段第一句话Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology。C选项是对这句话的paraphrase
    0 0 回复 2019-01-18 06:11:44
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    略略略略略略略

    我觉得A错在Braverman’s analysis of the function of technology,B的观点只在第一段出现过 没提过function
    0 0 回复 2018-11-13 12:19:28
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    暗香明月

    At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers.
    0 0 回复 2018-10-07 01:47:13
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    pip

    我觉得A选项错在reason这个词
    0 0 回复 2018-09-12 18:17:23
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      Yang1116回复pip

      同意

      0 0 回复 2018-10-22 00:43:31

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    考到770不是梦

    这个题是完全没看懂ac里只能凭感觉蒙……感觉全文是在反驳反驳,所以反驳B太细节了。总体是反驳constructivism。
    0 0 回复 2018-07-18 10:35:34
    • 评论用户头像

      考到770不是梦回复考到770不是梦

      跪求大神具体分析……

      0 0 回复 2018-07-18 10:36:01

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