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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P453-588题】

According to the passage, constructivists employed which of the following to promote their argument?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友dKm5cAG提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:08:50 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
A错误,文中没有提及社会构建论者使用经验主义研究
B错误,文中没有提及社会构建论者“引证支持他们立场的经理们”
C错误,文中没有提及“假想的场景”
D正确,文中第三段谈及相关内容
E错误,这是技术决定论者的观点

题目讨论 3条评论)

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    xxxxiao

    constructivists promoted their own view by contrasting it with a misrepresentation of determinists' views.
    0 0 回复 2019-12-27 16:47:41
  • 用户头像

    Gu777777

    D段中的misstatement 等价于第三段的 misrepresentating
    0 0 回复 2019-05-22 20:57:17
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    丝带拉芳

    ???
    什么鬼解释
    文章不是就两段吗?
    0 0 回复 2017-12-06 12:21:46
    • 评论用户头像

      取经少年回复丝带拉芳

      你怕是看了个假文章

      0 0 回复 2018-06-07 12:33:21

    • 评论用户头像

      Yang1116回复 取经少年

      hhh

      0 0 回复 2018-10-11 12:53:30

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