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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P453-586题】

The information in the passage suggests that which of the following statements from hypothetical sociological studies of change in industry most clearly exemplifies the social constructivists’ version of technological determinism?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友osk5提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:09:29 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
A正确,再现了文章第三段最后一部分的内容
B错误,文章没有表达“所有的过程都是不断妥协和权衡的结果”
C错误,与“人”无关
D错误,与“研发”无关
E错误,与educated workers无关
当前版本由 70**** 更新于2015-11-27 17:03:37 感谢由 70**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

AB选项的解释不太合理吧,B选项定位在第一段倒数第二句,这个观点就是constructivist本身的观点,并不是social constructivists'version of technological determinism。A选项定位在第二段第二句。


题目讨论 10条评论)

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    击麦700+++

    可是A不是Clark的结论吗,第二段的第一句‘Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization.’,怎么又变成了constructivism的结论了?奇奇怪怪
    1 0 回复 2021-07-06 14:20:14
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    October

    读懂第3段,冒号:里的内容,in other words同义转述。前面那句话是对technological determinism的正确理解,后面那句话是constructivists对technological determinism的歪曲。
    machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society✔️  这里“appropriate”明显是个正向词
    view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.❌  这是constructivists的歪曲理解,对应选项A
    整体上看,不同点在于,歪曲方理解中“technology是和skill/workers是割裂开的,而非互相融合的”
    跟第4段里Clark理解的显然不同,Clark认为technological determinism是“technology不是冰冷的机器,而是跟人融合的,改变 telephone exchange就能影响到人的许多方面”
    3 0 回复 2020-11-01 19:13:54
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    343808in

    A选项直接定位在第三段,第三段就是SC misrepresenting的TD,SC认为支持TD的人是view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization. 是technology
    directly influencing直接影响(决定)work skills.而不是work skills影响application of technology.
    0 0 回复 2020-04-14 15:10:00
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    Zehnstein

    找到c怎么看t:The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.
    0 0 回复 2020-02-03 22:09:26
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    hikanai

    b是sc 不是td的内容
    0 0 回复 2019-12-02 12:14:56
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    432442ba

    supposed to那一句是TD本来应该有的观点,而紧跟着后面那一句是SC对TD的误读
    0 0 回复 2019-10-13 17:24:06
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    浪逐曲奇

    B选项 技术决定一切,暗示没有negotiation
    0 0 回复 2019-08-14 23:19:21
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    AUCHUI

    问的是constructivists’ version,直接定位第二段呀。machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society.。再结合通篇主旨。再现了文章第三段最后一部分的内容是个啥?
    0 0 回复 2018-12-20 21:07:53
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    y998

    SC的观点--第三段The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.
    
    B他强调机器仅仅反应了社会的选择,Technological System只是管理者控制工人的工具,或利益集团追逐利益的基础工作, 这便是Social Constructivism。
    Constructivists为获得认同而曲解了TD:TDs are supposed to believe本认为机械能以适当的形式改变社会规范。而这点到了Cons的嘴里,就变成了“是技术,而不是人,改变了社会进程。(直译:直接影响了工作技能及模式)
    0 0 回复 2018-10-17 09:06:09
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    ZoeyYoung

    这道题只要提出technology掌握一切就可,如果是科技和人类互相兼容或者互相帮助的都不是在表达social constructivist口中的technological
    1 0 回复 2018-09-06 20:13:52
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