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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
阅读RC-9487 (第2/16题) Time Cost00:00
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该题平均耗时:2m39s,平均正确率:55.8%

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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P452-584题】

Which of the following statements about the modernization of the telephone exchange is supported by information in the passage?

  • 分析A选项
    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • 分析B选项
    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • 分析C选项
    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • 分析D选项
    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • 分析E选项
    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
该题目由网友XZrKlCZG提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:10:21 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
从文中信息可知,电话交换技术的现代化对很多方面产生了巨大的影响
A错误,无法从文中获得reduced the role of managers
B错误,无法从文中获得without the consent of the employees
C正确
D错误,无法从文中获得felt victimized by the new technology
E错误,无法从文中获得“现代化足以证明社会构建论的支持者的观点是正确

题目讨论 10条评论)

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    400473wdoj

    telephone exchange 仅首末有,首段无信息。末端好定位,考点是对比,maintenance routines=原文maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches。
    错选了A,未提及对应role,不要yy/
    1 0 回复 2021-10-16 18:50:30
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    DamienExam

    这解释真的是绝了……这么说的话我也会写解释了……
    6 0 回复 2021-02-14 17:05:56
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    xxxxiao

    定位在最后一段JC在empirical level 反驳constructivism 的那一小段内容。描述了 how a change from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems at the telephone exchange altered work tasks, skills, training  opportunities, administration, and organization of workers.  表示modernization of the telephone exchange affected much more than maintenance routines.
    3 0 回复 2019-12-27 16:43:21
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    浪逐曲奇

    建议大家如果没懂网友解析的话可以返回去看OG电子版上的详解。这道题在书上显示的页码是534页
    1 0 回复 2019-08-14 23:00:59
    • 评论用户头像

      可欣同学回复浪逐曲奇

      好人!

      0 0 回复 2020-10-10 10:55:57

    • 评论用户头像

      1206777d回复浪逐曲奇

      OG21 470页

      0 0 回复 2021-09-24 19:34:49

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    Yunaaa

    JC(TD派)(√):tech obscured by B
    B(SC派)(×)
    
    SC misrepresent TD
    
    JC反驳:
    ①theoretical
    ②empirical:maintenance-intensive →semielectronic
    1 0 回复 2019-03-13 21:31:38
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    Yunaaa

    咋定位呀?
    0 0 回复 2019-03-13 21:16:41
    • 评论用户头像

      浪逐曲奇回复Yunaaa

      文章倒数第四行

      0 0 回复 2019-08-14 22:57:31

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    橙汁儿

    exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems  从..到..的转变
    0 0 回复 2018-05-23 12:01:03
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    橙汁儿

    maintenance routines 日常维护的例程
    0 0 回复 2018-05-23 12:00:36
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    曼迪小朋友

    全文第一句,即说effect on exchange maintenance and workers 所以至少还有workers; L44-46列举了改变了works taks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and orgnization of workers.
    3 0 回复 2017-12-10 22:24:24
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      wzj杀g必成功回复曼迪小朋友

      我也觉得 第一句其实是唯一提到了modernization的句子!

      0 0 回复 2021-09-16 00:23:59

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    奋斗的小汤圆

    from (maintenance-intensive) electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems 感觉提示词就是maintenance-intensive,from。。。to又有变化的意思
    0 0 回复 2017-12-04 09:43:38
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