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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing plants to realize economies of scale.It is true that as the capacity of a manufacturing operation rises, costs per unit of output fall as plant size approaches "minimum efficient scale," where the cost per unit of output reaches a minimum, determined roughly by the state of existing technology and size of the potential market. However, minimum efficient scale cannot be fully realized unless a steady "throughput" (the flow of materials through a plant) is attained. The throughput needed to maintain the optimal scale of production requires careful coordination not only of the flow of goods through the production process, but also of the flow of input from suppliers and the flow of output to wholesalers and final consumers. If throughput falls below a critical point, unit costs rise sharply and profits disappear. A manufacturer’s fixed costs and "sunk costs" (original capital investment in the physical plant) do not decrease when production declines due to inadequate supplies of raw materials, problems on the factory floor, or inefficient sales networks. Consequently, potential economies of scale are based on the physical and engineering characteristics of the production facilities—that is, on tangible capital—but realized economies of scale are operational and organizational, and depend on knowledge, skills, experience, and teamwork—that is, on organized human capabilities, or intangible capital.

The importance of investing in intangible capital becomes obvious when one looks at what happens in new capital-intensive manufacturing industries. Such industries are quickly dominated, not by the first firms to acquire technologically sophisticated plants of theoretically optimal size, but rather by the first to exploit the full potential of such plants. Once some firms achieve this, a market becomes extremely hard to enter. Challengers must construct comparable plants and do so after the first movers have already worked out problems with suppliers or with new production processes. Challengers must create distribution networks and marketing systems in markets where first movers have all the contacts and know-how. And challengers must recruit management teams to compete with those that have already mastered these functional and strategic activities.

【OG20-P428-528题】

The passage suggests that in order for a manufacturer in a capital-intensive industry to have a decisive advantage over competitors making similar products, the manufacturer must

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  • 分析C选项
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该题目由网友SAsXOHF提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-01 15:14:58 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
第32行出现了capital-intensive企业,此行业的赢家是那些the first  to exploit the full potential of such plants的生产商。从文中可知,为了获得决定性的胜利,必须在无形资本方面做文章,选择包含此内容的选项即可
A错误,作者并不认为达到theoretically optimal size的生产商是市场中的主导
B错误,sunk costs是第一段提及的内容,即“提及但无关”
C正确,与文中相关内容的表述相符
D错误,文中未提及更高质量的商品
E错误,文中未涉及stockpile raw materials at production sites

题目讨论 10条评论)

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    999+

    这道题怎么定位到第二段 实际内容是在第一段?而且bce感觉都对啊?
    0 0 回复 2021-10-13 16:33:01
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      Teresasa回复999+

      根据capital-intensive industry定位到第二段,然后看not by...., but rather by..... but转折后的内容就是对应的答案

      0 0 回复 2021-11-06 20:42:33

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    Edward.

    稳健的生产力是实现最小有效经济规模的必要条件。

    有形资产决定潜在的经济规模;无形资产决定经济规模的实现。

    无形资产在新型的资本密集型行业里很重要。

     

    1. 细节题

    It is true that as the capacity of a manufacturing operation rises, costs per unit of output fall as plant size approaches "minimum efficient scale," where the cost per unit of output reaches a minimum, determined roughly by the state of existing technology and size of the potential market.

    A. 与原文相反

    B. 没提

    C. 正确

    D. 没提

    E. 没提


    0 0 回复 2021-05-09 16:54:23
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    Ms Eh

    总结一下文章,
    第一段:
    1. 为了实现规模效应最优化,使得“throughput”最小---上下游综合作用的结果。
    2. 结论:潜在的规模效应是由有形资产-工厂机器构成的,然而实现规模效应是由无形资产-技术和劳动力构成的(划重点)。
    第二段:
    投资无形资产变得尤为重要。第一个利用技术实现全部潜力开发的人成为第一个吃螃蟹的人。而之后的挑战者只能走前面人走过的老路。
    1 0 回复 2020-12-17 21:21:03
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    October

    文章结构:Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing plants(1) to realize economies of scale.It is true that  build large manufacturing plants(1) is good. However, economies of scale cannot be fully realized unless a steady “throughput (2)” is attained.  A manufacturer’s fixed costs and "sunk costs" do not change with throughput(2) . Consequently, potential economies of scale are based on large manufacturing plants(1)—that is, on tangible capital—but realized economies of scale depend on organized human capabilities, or intangible capital
    The importance of investing in intangible capital becomes obvious. Once some firms achieve this, a market becomes extremely hard to enter. Challengers must construct comparable plants and do so after the first movers have already worked out problems with suppliers or with new production processes. Challengers must create distribution networks and marketing systems in markets where first movers have all the contacts and know-how. And challengers must recruit management teams to compete with those that have already mastered these functional and strategic activities. 这段在说当Challengers在弄生产线时,the first movers已经弄好了生产线的细节;当Challengers在搭建销售网时,the first movers已经弄好了销售网的细节…前后两个对比关系的宾语O是一样内容
    0 0 回复 2020-10-31 08:14:21
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    Run123

    minimum efficient scale,最低有效生产规模,即获得 economic scale的最小产量
    0 0 回复 2020-05-21 13:03:50
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    先让我上600吧

    first to exploit the full potential of such plants.
    0 0 回复 2020-01-14 21:15:07
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    leon小恶魔

    C为什么与原文相关内容表述一致,能有小伙伴找一下表述一致那句吗?
    这道题我做了20min,最后只能用排除法选的,但是效率好低啊
    0 0 回复 2019-12-27 12:56:57
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      161898ppvg回复leon小恶魔

      rather by the first to exploit the full potential of such plants. , minimum efficient scale," where the cost per unit of output reaches a minimum, determined roughly by the state of existing technology and size of the potential market.

      0 0 回复 2021-03-29 17:26:31

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    徐小小纯

    觉得解析写的不完全,这个需要跳跃定位吧。。
    首先肯定是第二段but rather by the first to exploit the full potential of such plants.
    但是full potential 和 C的关系是什么呢?
    第一段costs per unit of output fall as plant size approaches "minimum efficient scale," where the cost per unit of output reaches a minimum, determined roughly by the state of existing technology and size of the potential market. 
    是由potential决定的。
    
    个人理解,不知道对不对
    4 0 回复 2019-10-24 22:15:33
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    Sunnie22

    有大神讲解一下么,为什么是C不是A?? C 是最开始提到的啊,原文只说了发现潜力,选项里没有这项啊。。。。求教!
    0 0 回复 2018-08-16 15:47:54
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      zyChen回复Sunnie22

      “not by the first firms to acquire technologically sophisticated plants of theoretically optimal size, but rather by the first to exploit the full potential of such plants.”原文 but rather by才是主要想要说明的部分

      0 0 回复 2018-09-03 22:08:44

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    舒服是留给死人的

    其他的都不是decisive advantage,除了be the first to enter the market
    1 0 回复 2017-10-01 15:29:36
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