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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1)the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction; (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands— i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws-and set aside or reserved; and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

【OG20-P419-509题】

The passage suggests that the legal rights of citizens other than American Indians to the use of water flowing into the Rio Grande pueblos are

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暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 LZYYYY 更新于2020-06-29 00:22:21 感谢由 LZYYYY 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

在WUS案件中,法庭说经过FBIR和其附近的水都是为印第安人保留的根据保护条款。尽管这个条款没有提到水的法益,法院下令州政府,在建造保护区的时候,努力和印第安人公平商量让他们能保留下他们土地必需的水。WUS之后还提到,法院可以找到州政府法条里可以利用水满足以下个别目的 1)..2).. 3)..

印第安人自己也建立了水权力,尽管法院基于在美国获得权力前的传统划分和某些水的使用。 比如说,RGP村在美国1848年取得New Mexico之前就存在了。尽管他们成了美国的一部分,但是他们的土地从来都不是美国州政府的公共土地;从来没有条款说过他们的土地作为印第安人保护区是或者不是州政府的公共土地。这个条款没有阻碍WUS的使用。是不是印第安人保护区是一个实践问题不是法律问题,这个村子从来都被当做保护区。AVC案件支持了这个看法,法院说保护区的形成方式不影响WUS条款的使用。所以,RGP村使用水的权力超过其他公民的水权力,从1848起,也就是这个村子变成保护区的那年


问题,其他公民的水权力

答案,E,被RGP的人限制


当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-04-23 15:27:45 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. 细节题

A. 相反,AC保证的印第安人水权高于其他居民

B. 没提

C. 没提

D. 没提

E. the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848,一致



题目讨论 6条评论)

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    999+

    c的错误点是在哪里呢?
    0 0 回复 2021-10-09 17:37:02
  • 用户头像

    范范冲冲冲

    other than没注意
    0 0 回复 2020-10-27 16:40:50
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    emily666

    反正印第安人的关键词就是“保护”,黑人就是“反对歧视”,女人就是“平等”
    4 0 回复 2020-05-14 19:19:18
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    郁小姐要上700吖

    This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.定位在这里,therefore作为影响关系出现,前面解释原因,后面解释题干的priority
    0 0 回复 2020-04-08 13:00:02
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    245240abh

    普通市民的水权被之前的claim限制了
    0 0 回复 2019-12-07 13:31:32
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    小火火火箭

    注意这里问的是citizens的,传统的方法就是保护印第安人使用水权的,因此普通市民的水权被之前的claim给限制了
    0 0 回复 2019-09-19 10:38:59
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