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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1)the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction; (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands— i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws-and set aside or reserved; and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

【OG20-P419-507题】

The author cites the fact that the Rio Grande pueblos were never formally withdrawn from public lands primarily in order to do which of the following?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-04-23 15:27:22 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. 推断题

A. 原文提到这一点是为了转折, This fact, however, has not….

B. 不符,原文提到although they at that time…

C. 原文说he pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands,并且这一点并不妨碍它获得水权,因为究竟是不是federal public land并不重要,重要的是practice,即事实如何。

D. 不是陈述“RG从来没有正式从公共土地里收回”的目的。

E. 没提



题目讨论 3条评论)

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    TQ

    回文定位"Rio Grande pueblos"到第二段第二句(第二行). 开头是for example, 也就是说整个Rio Grande pueblos就是为了解释第一句的"Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty." 
    Rio Grande pueblos不符合第一段criteria里面的第二条" formally withdrawn from public lands as reservations",所以理论上应该不符合W doctrine. 但是特例是W doctrine有broader application (based on practice, but a legal defination). 所以选A, 即, 即使不满足W的三个条件, 也可以被reserve water rights, 即此处W不apply
    B: 全文讨论water right, 与sovereignty无太多关联, 所以, 对于功能题目"cite... in order to...."一般都是与主旨(water right)相关的,B错
    D: 并没有提到citizen water rights
    E: 只有第一段提到了jurisdiction, Rio Grande pueblos在第二段, 无关选项
    C: 全文是讨论water right, 与land归属权没有太多关系
    0 0 回复 2020-12-27 05:26:25
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    506230whpp

    A
    “>说明为什么温特斯学说不适用于普韦布洛土地
    B
    “>暗示美国从未真正获得普韦布洛土地的主权
    C
    “>主张普韦布洛土地仍应被视为联邦公共土地的一部分
    D
    “>支持美国印第安人以外的公民的水权受温特斯主义限制的论点
    E
    建议联邦法院不能对普韦布洛印第安人传统的引水和用水争议案件提出管辖权
    0 0 回复 2020-09-06 16:40:13
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    Zehnstein

    in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine.
    0 0 回复 2020-02-24 22:37:46
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