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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1)the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction; (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands— i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws-and set aside or reserved; and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

【OG20-P419-505题】

The “pragmatic approach” mentioned in lines 37–38 of the passage is best defined as one that

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-04-23 15:26:55 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. 不是基于法律定义,而是基于实际情况

A. 一致

B. 这个方法针对的是印第安人,不是所有人

C. D. E. 无关



题目讨论 5条评论)

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    如果有时间的话我也能做对

    This fact, however, has not barred(没被禁止即是established虽然never formally) application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation(答案在说reservation) is a question of practice, not of legal definition(意思即是never formally), and the pueblos have always been treated(答案在说been treated as such 
    A
    ">grants recognition to reservations that were never formally established but that have traditionally been treated as such
    0 0 回复 2021-07-19 12:56:37
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    TQ

    The pragmatic approach is referring to "What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of the legal definition", 即 Winters doctrine虽然有criteria for federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes, but it has broader application based on practices.
    0 0 回复 2020-12-27 05:04:24
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    571661zxzq

    b。说的是确定了一个特殊地区的水权,过于片面。
    pragmatic approach整体说了水权在另外一种情况下(informal)也是可以行使的, the Rio Grande pueblos仅仅是个例子支持第二种情况,所以选b不好
    0 0 回复 2020-08-13 03:35:18
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      571661zxzq回复571661zxzq

      而且文章也没说all citizens, 说的是Pueblo Indians have water rights

      0 0 回复 2020-08-13 03:40:14

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    klmadge

    The “pragmatic approach”到底指的是判别什么的方法,是关键。
    5个选项中,BCE说的都是 有没有water right,而D说的是 有没有legal right,只有A说的是 能不能被确认为 “reservation”,而这正是前面那句话“What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. ”的含义。
    1 0 回复 2020-08-02 10:17:02
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    245240abh

    B选项,我觉得是 examining 和 based on 是有差别的
    0 0 回复 2019-12-07 12:53:43
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