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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1)the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction; (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands— i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws-and set aside or reserved; and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

【OG20-P418-502题】

According to the passage, which of the following was true of the treaty establishing the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation?

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当前版本由 386467yohwo 更新于2020-01-18 00:52:48 感谢由 386467yohwo 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. W v US case: right to use water near India Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the tready (established by the reservation)
tready: not mention water right-federal government: reserve-nevertheless the land would be useless
federal rights to reserve water for particular use:
-the land in question
-the land has been formally withdraw from federal public lands
-the government intended to reserve water and land when esablishing the reservation
2. American Indian tribes用另外的方式获得water rights<-traditional diversion and use of waters prior to the US's acq of soverrignty
eg. RG pueblos exists before-not constitute a part of federal publiclands
apply of winter doctrine: what constitutes an American Indian reservation
-pueblos->reservation
 A v C reservation creation manner not affect the application of winter doctrine->pueblow: priority to use water over other citizens

当前版本由 442093nrcat 更新于2019-09-13 17:51:48 感谢由 442093nrcat 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

第一段:1908 年的 winter 法案判定 FBIR 的印第安人有该地方的水权。即便是
在联邦政府建立 FBIR 的时候并没有写明水权归属问题,但是联邦政府当时的意
愿(intended to)是要保护这个印第安保护区的。如果没有水权的话,这个保护区
的土地都没用了,何谈保护。在这个著名的 winter 案例之后,政府明文规定了
在什么条件下印第安享有水权:1、2、3。
第二段:有些印第安部落自己建立了水权的条款。比如 RG 早早就存在了,美
国 1848 年才占了那个地方,而且尽管占了,那个地方从没真正属于联邦政府管
辖。 (所以 winter 条款适用 RG 吗?)然后作者说“in any event, no treaty, statute,
or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public
lands as American Indian reservations.”注意这里与 winter 第二条是冲突的(第
二条是说要 the land has been formally withdrawn )!然后关键句来了“What
constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal
definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the
United States.”就是说虽然条款冲突(定义不清),但是 RG 是美国的一部分,
而且 RG从来都是被当作保护区对待的。后面都是在做解释,1963 年 AC 认为
所有都不能影响 winter法案的实施,总之就是 RG 享有同样的印第安水权保护。


题目讨论 10条评论)

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  • 用户头像

    221727pxsy

    一言以蔽之,印第安人的用水权在法令上的问题,第一段讲了联邦没规定但保护其用水权(although…intented to),出现了winter这个案例表示以下三种情况。第二段讲述在美国佬统治下,他们用水权prior,因为新的法条Winters doctrine怎么规定。
    0 0 回复 2020-09-22 13:41:26
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    221727pxsy

    这篇是GMAT最难的阅读没有之一,雷哥还给他归类为600-650分段的呵呵
    0 0 回复 2020-09-22 13:30:40
    • 评论用户头像

      445970iqji回复221727pxsy

      我做了第二遍还是错很多

      1 0 回复 2020-11-01 06:09:37

    • 评论用户头像

      163175ndki回复 445970iqji

      我第三遍了 间隔时间久了再看其实还是啥都不记得

      0 0 回复 2020-11-17 21:22:03

  • 用户头像

    587700zqo

    这篇太难了。。。
    1 0 回复 2020-09-10 16:24:29
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    弹钢琴的小胖手

    完全没看懂文章,全是懵着选了答案一个没对TT
    1 0 回复 2020-08-06 04:24:42
  • 用户头像

    CLE是颗汤圆子

    第一段:
    1. 一个案子说federal把水权给了American Indian因为federal想要保护土地(没水土地没用)
    2. 出台了三条能给水权的标准
    (1)属于联邦土地 (2)曾经是领地现在不是 (3)政府想要保护那块地(前文的案子就是这个)
    第二段:
    1. 有些American Indian有水权是因为传统
    举例pueblos:从来都不是联邦所属领地,但之前的标准仍然适用(因为政府要保护)
    0 0 回复 2020-07-19 16:54:11
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    LISA保佑我上700

    这尼玛心态崩了
    0 0 回复 2020-07-16 21:19:58
  • 用户头像

    大开杀G

    错5个.......你们都错几个???看看我是不是一个人。。。。这篇啥也没看懂
    2 0 回复 2020-05-10 22:35:57
  • 用户头像

    deliva

    It failed to mention water rights to be enjoyed by the reservation's inhabitants.
    "Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, "
    0 0 回复 2020-02-18 03:22:52
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    182200dsrm

    错了三个,但完全看不懂在说啥
    0 0 回复 2020-01-15 20:33:01
  • 用户头像

    245240abh

    基本错完了……
    2 0 回复 2019-12-07 12:30:46
    • 评论用户头像

      760172回复245240abh

      看来我不是一个人,完全没看懂的我哭了

      2 0 回复 2020-01-02 09:51:52

    • 评论用户头像

      骆驼去美国回复 760172

      完全懵的状态 内容太难了

      0 0 回复 2020-03-03 17:36:20

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