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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of calcium phosphate) of tiny marine animals that probably appeared about 520million years ago, were once among the most controversial of fossils. Both the nature of the organism to which the remains belonged and the function of there mains were unknown. However,since the 1981 discovery of fossils preserving not just the phosphatic elements but also other remains of the tiny soft-bodied animals (also called conodonts) that bore them, scientists' reconstructions of the animals' anatomy have had important implications for hypotheses concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton.

The vertebrate skeleton had traditionally been regarded as a defensive development, champions of this view postulating that it was only with the much later evolution of jaws that vertebrates became predators. The first vertebrates,which were soft-bodied, would have been easy prey for numerous invertebrate carnivores, especially if these early vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders. Thus, traditionalists argued, these animals developed coverings of bony scales or plates, and teeth were secondary features, adapted from the protective bony scales. Indeed, externa! skeletons of this type are common among the well-known fossils of ostracoderms, jawless vertebrates that existed from approximately 500 to 400 million years ago.However,other paleontologists argued that many of the definitive characteristics of vertebrates, such as paired eyes and muscular and skeletal adaptations for active life, would not have evolved unless the first vertebrates were predatory. Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators.

The stiffening notochord along the back of the body, V-shaped muscle blocks along the sides, and posterior tail fins help to identify conodonts as among the most primitive of vertebrates. The lack of any mineralized structures apart from the elements in the mouth indicates that conodonts were moreprimitive than the armored jawless fishes such as the ostracoderms. It now appears that the hard parts that first evolved in the mouth of an animal improved its efficiency as a predator, and that aggression rather than protection was the driving force behind the origin of the vertebrate skeleton.

【OG20-P450-581题】

The second paragraph in the passage serves primarily to

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友WouDQc6F提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 百香果蜂蜜茶 更新于2017-08-10 15:01:32 感谢由 百香果蜂蜜茶 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

这一题的关键在于读清楚第二段,明白第二段的结构,第二段首先提出了一个古老的观念, 然后呢,这个观念就开始被反驳。

A(错),看懂了第二段就会明白这一段描述的是一个debate 而不是 contribution

B(错)  我们仔细看完第一段和第三段后会发现 来自于1981年的观点其实是支持传统观点的,而并非在拿这两种观点进行对比

C(错)这一问也是错的没边际, 文章并没有拿 ostracoderms的特点(这个名词仅仅是个例子)与软体动物的特点进行对比

D(错)development of teeth 仅仅只被作者视为一种特点而被提出,并没有说明这种development有多么多么重要

E(对)第二段其实讨论的就是 development of vertebrate skeleton, 然后通过争论 到底vertebrate一开始扮演的角色(是不是predator),所以 第二段从结构上来看,把观点一分为二,然后进行讨论


题目讨论 10条评论)

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    498295bwd

    感覺debate有一种来回辩驳的感觉,而不是仅仅被反驳
    0 0 回复 2020-09-07 17:21:15
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      如果有时间的话我也能做对回复498295bwd

      E present the two sides of the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton表现在哪些地方呢: 结论句Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators.(concerning development) 我开始选B因为二段大段都是评论contrast view point的词语,比如说regarded as、this view postulating that、would have been 这种及其像议论的句子我一下就把包含presenting的E排了,结果他后半句说是present debate,一般人都是present facts你哪想得到他居然present debate而不是真的在debate呢?加上B段后半句也是错的,没时间的时候也就不看了,所以这道题是挖了几个坑的,也错值了。

      0 0 回复 2021-08-01 16:18:35

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    746860xgow

    B不是不对,是不如E准确。文中开头就说了这是个controversial,直接对应debate。B的表达显然有些模糊
    1 0 回复 2020-05-22 06:50:21
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    xxxxiao

    B选项:
    第二段后面说traditionalists==牙在后。但是other paleontologists==牙在先。
    
    第一段讲对1981 discovery发现的动物进行进化过程的重现,可以对脊椎动物的进化过程有很大的影响,既然有影响就一定是做出了什么改变的,也就是支持了一方,并证明另一方的观点不对。也就是文章主要内容想要讲述1981 discovery 对 development of vertebrate 的已有的观点所产生的影响。
    
    第三段举例支持牙在先这个观点。既然是支持,就肯定是已经存在的观点,不可能是从1981 discovery 产生的,否则也不存在是否支持该观点了。
    1 0 回复 2019-12-26 01:12:12
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    7777777777777

    1981的发现是支持opposing view,which some paleontologists already held at that time。文章的时间线应该是,先有两个对立的以前的观点再有1981的发现去支持其中一个观点。只不过这篇文章反过来说了,有点像插叙。
    0 0 回复 2019-11-09 16:08:42
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    432442ba

    B的问题在于那个反驳传统观点的观点不是基于1981年的发现,而是恰好反过来,1981年的发现在这个后头,那个网友解析有问题。
    1 0 回复 2019-10-11 22:17:55
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    700加我来辣

    这篇文章换中文我也读不懂
    4 0 回复 2019-09-03 15:59:19
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    浪逐曲奇

    。。网友解析是官方OG详解里的中文版,是对的。只是我真没理解。。。
    0 0 回复 2019-08-14 22:50:37
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      精灵北方回复浪逐曲奇

      B不对是因为第二段中第二个观点不是derived from 1981,是先有第二个观点,后来1981认为他是对的

      0 0 回复 2019-08-25 20:09:18

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    浪逐曲奇

    网友解析里对B的解释不对。1981第一段真的没作用,只是一小块背景,而且1981分析只是一个供研究的新思路,文章根本没说它支持哪一边观点。第二段重头戏就是呈现两种观点的对比呈现。
    1 0 回复 2019-08-14 20:16:40
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      浪逐曲奇回复浪逐曲奇

      网友解析是官方OG详解里的中文版,是对的。只是我真没理解。。。

      1 0 回复 2019-08-14 22:49:53

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    peterbearpan

    那如果支持反驳的一方,B不就是对的了吗?
    0 0 回复 2019-05-24 10:51:35
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    AUCHUI

    B 为什么不对呢
    0 0 回复 2018-12-20 20:12:45
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