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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Because the framers of the United States Constitution (written in 1787) believed that protecting property rights relating to inventions would encourage the new nation’s economic growth, they gave Congress—the national legislature—a constitutional mandate to grant patents for inventions. The resulting patent system has served as a model for those in other nations. Recently, however, scholars have questioned whether the American system helped achieve the framers’ goals. These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were “antipatent” and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. This argument is based partly on examination of court decisions in cases where patent holders (“patentees”)brought suit alleging infringement of their patent rights. In the 1820s, for instance, 75 percent of verdicts were decided against the patentee.The proportion of verdicts for the patentee began to increase in the 1830s, suggesting to these scholars that judicial attitudes toward patent rights began shifting then.

Not all patent disputes in the early nineteenth entury were litigated, however, and litigated cases were not drawn randomly from the population of disputes. Therefore the rate of verdicts in favor of patentees cannot be used by itself to gauge changes in judicial attitudes or enforceability of patent rights. If early judicial decisions were prejudiced against patentees, one might expect that subsequent courts—allegedly more supportive of patent rights—would reject the former legal precedents. But pre-1830 cases have been cited as frequently as later decisions, and they continue to be cited today,suggesting that the early decisions, many of which clearly declared that patent rights were a just recompense for inventive ingenuity,provided a lasting foundation for patent law.The proportion of judicial decisions in favor of patentees began to increase during the 1830s because of a change in the underlying population of cases brought to trial. This change was partly due to an 1836 revision to the patent system:an examination procedure, still in use today, was instituted in which each application is scrutinized for its adherence to patent law. Previously,patents were automatically granted upon payment of a $30 fee.

【OG20-P455-594题】

It can be inferred from the passage that the author and the scholars referred to in highlight lines disagree about which of the following aspects of the patents defended in patent-infringement suits before 1830 ?

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友yOjNeCk提供。更多GMAT题目请
暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ad**** 更新于2016-09-11 11:08:43 感谢由 ad**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

Recently, however, (530)scholars have questioned whether the American system helped achieve the framers’ goals.

当前版本由 ad**** 更新于2016-09-11 11:33:24 感谢由 ad**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were “antipatent” and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons.

当前版本由 ad**** 更新于2016-09-11 11:41:14 感谢由 ad**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

文章讲述:学者认为法官有偏见,作者认为没有。

当前版本由 Na**** 更新于2016-09-26 13:12:49 感谢由 Na**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

题干KW:highlight disagree.  patent-infringement因为scholar的观点先出来,所以找到scholar对patent-infringement的看法。(推断题)

定位:定位到第一结构第2层次


错误答案特征

A. genuinely useful层次未提及

B. 和文章内容不符

C. 和文章内容不符

E. 无关比较


正确选项特征:

D.是原文的内容的同义转换。

These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were "antipatent and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. 

This argument is based partly on examination’ of court  decisions in cases where patent holders (“patentees”)brought suit alleging infringements of their patent right.



题目讨论 6条评论)

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    632530aeusq

    C错误的原因:annul是裁决的动作,原文想表达的是法官的态度导致arbitrary否决,法官态度是作者和scholar意见相左的地方,因此D选项说明了带着arbitrary reason的态度做出否决,优选。
    0 0 回复 2021-10-15 22:24:57
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    218008jz

    要注意作者反的是什么内容,二段第二局点明了是judicial attitude
    0 0 回复 2021-09-06 20:32:04
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    Mariposa爱学习

    第一段:Scholar认为是反对专利法的法官态度的转变才使得1830年代支持专利法的人变多
    第二段:作者反对scholar的看法,认为是专利系统的修改导致的支持者变多,跟法官的态度没有关系
    If early judicial decisions were prejudiced偏见的 against patentees, one might expect that subsequent courts—allegedly more supportive of patent rights—would reject the former legal precedents
    如果先前的法庭是有偏见的反对专利支持者,那之后的法庭一定会否决掉之前不公正的,有偏见的案子
    所以法官不会无故invalidate pantent
    1 0 回复 2020-11-15 10:53:26
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    anthony2333

    问关于1830年之前的专利侵权诉讼,作者和学者们的分歧在哪里——根据文章的论述可以总结出,学者认为法官有偏见,作者认为没有。

    A.    Whether the patents were granted for inventions that were genuinely useful

    文章没有讨论发明是否真的有用

    B.    Whether the patents were actually relevant to the growth of the United States economy

    作者没有就专利是否能促进经济增长发表看法

    C.    Whether the patents were particularly likely to be annulled by judges

    该选项没有对annul进行修饰,作者和学者是对法官驳回这些诉讼是否“无缘无故”有分歧,而不是就“驳回”这个事实有分歧

    D.    Whether the patents were routinely invalidated for reasons that were arbitrary

    正确,专利是否会常规性地被无故驳回,学者认为会,作者认为不会。

    E.    Whether the patents were vindicated at a significantly lower rate than patents in later suits

    学者没有提到专利诉讼被引用的几率

    选D

    1 0 回复 2018-11-29 16:41:19
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    ZoeyYoung

    问的是作者和学者关于1930之前专利侵权诉讼的不同观点
    These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were "antipatent and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. 
    
    This argument is based partly on examination’ of court  decisions in cases where patent holders (“patentees”)brought suit alleging infringements of their patent right.
    从这里可以这两句可以说明学者是筒体invalidated for reasons that were arbitrary
    
    但是定位到第二段“If early judicial decisions were prejudiced against patentees, one might expect that subsequent courts—allegedly more supportive of patent rights—would reject the former legal precedents. ”注意作者用的if, early judicial decicisons were prejudiced against patentees.说明作者不是觉得judicial decisions是有偏见的
    0 0 回复 2018-09-06 22:08:13
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    杀鸡770

    问关于1830年之前的专利侵权诉讼,作者和学者们的分歧在哪里——根据文章的论述可以总结出,学者认为法官有偏见,作者认为没有。
    
    A.    Whether the patents were granted for inventions that were genuinely useful
    文章没有讨论发明是否真的有用
    B.    Whether the patents were actually relevant to the growth of the United States economy
    作者没有就专利是否能促进经济增长发表看法
    C.    Whether the patents were particularly likely to be annulled by judges   易错选项!
    该选项没有对annul进行修饰,作者和学者是对法官驳回这些诉讼是否“无缘无故”有分歧,而不是就“驳回”这个事实有分歧
    D.   Whether the patents were routinely invalidated for reasons that were arbitrary
    正确,专利是否会常规性地被无故驳回,学者认为会,作者认为不会。
    E.    Whether the patents were vindicated at a significantly lower rate than patents in later suits
    学者没有提到专利诉讼被证实的几率差别
    
    所以选D
    4 0 回复 2017-10-24 22:29:18
    • 评论用户头像

      肥米回复杀鸡770

      谢谢,很清楚

      0 0 回复 2017-11-23 19:06:35

    • 评论用户头像

      浪逐曲奇回复杀鸡770

      太感谢了!

      0 0 回复 2019-08-18 23:52:29

    • 评论用户头像

      青花鱼罐头回复杀鸡770

      蟹蟹!解释的太好了

      0 0 回复 2019-10-09 11:01:23

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