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Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality. In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women. Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one. Many recent works by these scholars stress the ways in which differences among Renaissance women—especially in terms of social status and religion—work to complicate the kinds of generalizations both Burckhardt and Kelly made on the basis of their observations about upper-class Italian women.

The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority of the population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiences as typical of “female experience” in any general sense. Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and “women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.” Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them.

【OG20-P456-597题】

According to the passage, Krontiris’s work differs from that of the scholars mentioned in highlight line in which of the following ways?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 感觉自己萌萌哒 更新于2015-10-27 14:15:14 感谢由 感觉自己萌萌哒 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
K与scholar研究不同之处
K:第二段,研究literate women
S: 第一段,Many recent works by these scholars stress the ways in which differences among Renaissance women
A Krontiris’s work stresses the achievements of Renaissance women rather than the obstacles to their success.
B Krontiris’s work is based on a reinterpretation of the work of earlier scholars.
无涉及
C Krontiris’s views are at odds with those of both Kelly and Burkhardt.
2者共同之处,非不同
D Krontiris’s work focuses on the place of women in Renaissance society.
2者共同之处
E Krontiris’s views are based exclusively on the study of a privileged group of women.
定位中literate women=a privileged group of women
当前版本由 louis 更新于2017-08-29 20:40:23 感谢由 louis 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

E选项中的定位其实应该是,“The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. ”这句话中意思是说:上段末句批判了对upper-class Italian women的generalizations的问题,而这句话在说对middle- and upper-class European women同样出现了generalizations的问题(这里的generalizations和disproportionate representation是同一个概念,即用部分推出整体,导致结论不具有代表性。也就是这句话开头的“the trend”。这三个词都指这个概念。)

那么这个however是转折“observations about upper-class Italian women”与“works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women”,即不仅“对高阶层意大利女人的观测”有这个问题,然而(没想到)“有关中高阶层欧洲女人的作品”(居然)也有相同问题。



题目讨论 8条评论)

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    鸡鸡沙西米

    新流派的人研究的是上层社会女性,而是JK 研究的是上层女性中的精英- 6个女作家。 女作家是 privileged group of women.
    0 0 回复 2020-04-08 12:15:13
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    郑合初

    文章终于看懂了花了好久时间,考场上根本来不及 而且看懂了选项也好难选
    1 0 回复 2020-01-22 03:51:46
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      今天GMAT过730了吗?回复郑合初

      我也觉得。。。。

      0 0 回复 2020-10-12 18:07:19

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    huang642

    第三段中的members of a tiny minority of the population也算是提示了E中少数的有权势privileged group of women
    0 0 回复 2019-05-09 11:26:08
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    peterbearpan

    全文翻译+看OG+反复读终于搞明白整个文章是什么结构了:
    第一段:JB说文艺复兴时期妇女地位和男性比肩,JK说哪里有,女性地位根本不如文艺复兴时期的男性和中世纪的自己;新流派同时反对JB和JK,他们既没有JB那么乐观,也没有JK那么悲观,而是关注与不同社会地位和信仰的女性(也就是各个阶层),复杂化了JB和JK只对上层意大利女人的观察结论。
    第二段:但是,这种反对JB和JK的趋势在一些只关注中上层识字女性群体的研究作品中也有体现,这种方法的研究结果其实不能代表女性整体,只能代表那部分识字的,比如TK的研究。(也就是说TK也是同时反对JB和JK)TK将女性和女作家概念混淆,只通过性别来划分研究对象,而不在乎他们地位的不同,包括是否识字。blablabla说了一些TK的contribution,就是女性在遇到社会压迫时也反抗,只是反抗程度很有限。
    
    所以说,整个文章里有四个观点:JB(女性地位高),JK(女性地位低),新流派trend(JB、JK都不对,要看不同地位女性情况),TK(JB、JK都不对,只看中上层识字的),这样看完,很明显答案就是E了
    5 0 回复 2019-03-29 16:07:45
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      liangsshuang回复peterbearpan

      TK为什么不是新流派的example呀,一直以为他们是同一类…

      0 0 回复 2019-08-22 08:10:14

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      Jennie在学习回复peterbearpan

      The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. 注意这里的however。如果时间不够的话,一定要看“however” “therefore” “for example”这种词。

      0 0 回复 2020-09-12 16:57:31

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      我必700回复peterbearpan

      新流派重点强调的是要看不同地位女性但是TK只看了识字的那部分。其实也是忽略了不同地位的女性。

      0 0 回复 2020-12-14 16:57:01

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    李椅子

    还是不太懂补充解析的意思,第二段的第一句不能理解为递进的意思吗?就是说这种趋势在这些方面更明显,第二句such开头的就说明还是会有不足之处,这样理解不可以吗?
    0 0 回复 2017-12-01 09:38:13
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    gmatgo

    划线的学者和Krontiris都同样反对B和JK 所以C选项是共同点,不是划线学者和Krontiris的不同点
    0 0 回复 2017-09-08 02:36:30
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      gmatgo回复gmatgo

      划线的学者反对B和JK只关注上层阶级;Krontiris也只关注中层和上层阶级,但是她把阶层女性的经历代表了所有女性的经历,模糊了社会阶级,以偏概全。虽然她犯了错,但是还是有贡献的,因为她谨慎乐观不像B盲目乐观也不像JK消极。

      0 0 回复 2017-09-08 02:56:54

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    louis

    Jacob Burckhardt’s view that RenaissanceEuropean women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance menhas been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to theirpresentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality.
    JB就文艺复兴时期的女性与男性立足于完美的平等的观点,反复被女性主义学者引用,作为他们展示历史上丰富的关于女性不平等的证据的前言。
    In striking contrast to Burckhardt, JoanKelly in her famous 1977 essay, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” argued that theRenaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative bothto Renaissance men and to medieval women.  
    而JK的观点与JB观点形成鲜明对比的,在她的著名的1977文章中,她反问道:女性经历了文艺复兴吗?争论到相对于文艺复兴期的男性和中世纪女性,文艺复兴对于女性来说是一个经济和社会的衰退。
    
    Recently, however, a significant trendamong feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision ofthe Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one.
    然而近期,女性主义学者中的主流趋势观点摒弃JK对文艺复兴的消极观点和JB的乐观看法。
    
    Many recent works by these scholars stressthe ways in which differences among Renaissance women—especially in terms ofsocial status and religion—work to complicate thekinds of generalizations both Burckhardt and Kelly made on the basis of theirobservations about upper-class Italian women.
    近期的学者作品通过强调文艺复兴女性在工作方式上的不同,尤其是在社会地位和信仰上,来复杂化JB 和JK基于他们对上层意大利女性的观察而得出的概化类的结论。
    
    新主流摒弃了JB和JK的关于文艺复兴女性地位的两极态度。
    
    The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- andupper-class European women gives them disproportionaterepresentation in the historical record.
    为什么用了however, 因为上文是说很多学者的作品强调不同阶级女性的不同,而此处却是说在一些专注于一个阶级女性的作品中也有这个趋势,主体出现了相反的变化因此用了however。
    然而,在一些聚焦于有写作能力的中产及上层阶级欧洲女性的作品中,这个趋势也很明显,也赋予了这些作品在历史记录中占据了和实际不相称的代表。
    摒弃两级女性地位的著作也体现了这个流行,并使这些作品在历史记录里意义非凡
    Suchwomen were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority ofthe population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiencesas typical of “female experience “in any general sense.
    一般意义上,仅仅因为她们的读写能力,而将这些只占小部分的女性对她们的经历的描述作为典型的女性经历是不可靠的。
    
    Tina Krontiris, for example, in herfascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times toconflate “women” and “women writers,” assuming that women’s gender,irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to viewwomen as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis.
    比如,在TK 的对6位文艺复兴女性作家的精彩的研究中,有时候确实趋向于将女性和女性作家混淆,不顾其他的包括认知能力等的社会性的不同,假定女性的性别应许我们视女性为同类的社会团体并把这个团体作为分析对象。
    
    
    Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significantcontribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer whatmight be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’sachievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance womenfaced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.”
    尽管如此,TK还是在这个领域做出了杰出的贡献,并且,尽管她也强调了当文艺复兴女性寻找机会为表示反对而发声时所遇到的社会阻力为什么用了although是因为与JK的负面观点有一个类似点,她仍可以代表那群对文艺复兴女性作所谓的谨慎乐观主意评定的作家。
    cautiously optimistic assessment ofRenaissance women’s achievements对文艺复兴女性的正确认识态度。
    Krontiris is concerned to show womenintentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm ofpublic discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her soberand thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition tocultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basicassumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them.
    TK意在展现女性为了她们自己的一些反对潜在的制约思想的权利(至少在一些公共演讲领域)而有意地交涉协商,而在她庄重而又精心构思的结束语中,TK又暗示到,这样的口头上的对文化上刻板印象的反对,是很有局限性的。女性很少攻击那些压迫她们的基本假设前提。
    0 0 回复 2017-08-29 20:31:26
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    musclebb

    OG原书的答案是E
    0 0 回复 2017-08-16 22:01:22
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