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There are recent reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world’s endangered amphibian species. These declines, if real, may be signs of a general trend toward extinction, and many environmentalists have claimed that immediate environmental action is necessary to remedy this “amphibian crisis,” which, in their view, is an indicator of general and catastrophic environmental degradation due to human activity.

To evaluate these claims, it is useful to make a preliminary distinction that is far too often ignored. A declining population should not be confused with an endangered one. An endangered population is always rare, almost always small, and, by definition, under constant threat of extinction even without a proximate cause in human activities. Its disappearance, however unfortunate, should come as no great surprise. Moreover, chance events—which may indicate nothing about the direction of trends in population size—may lead to its extinction. The probability of extinction due to such random factors depends on the population size and is independent of the prevailing direction of change in that size.

For biologists, population declines are potentially more worrisome than extinctions. Persistent declines, especially in large populations, indicate a changed ecological context. Even here, distinctions must again be made among declines that are only apparent (in the sense that they are part of habitual cycles or of normal fluctuations), declines that take a population to some lower but still acceptable level, and those that threaten extinction (e.g., by taking the number of individuals below the minimum viable population). Anecdotal reports of population decreases cannot distinguish among these possibilities, and some amphibian populations have shown strong fluctuations in the past.

It is indisputably true that there is simply not enough long-term scientific data on amphibian populations to enable researchers to identify real declines in amphibian populations. Many fairly common amphibian species declared all but extinct after severe declines in the 1950s and 1960s have subsequently recovered, and so might the apparently declining populations that have generated the current appearance of an amphibian crisis. Unfortunately, longterm data will not soon be forthcoming, and postponing environmental action while we wait for it may doom species and whole ecosystems to extinction.

【OG20-P447-574题】

Which of the following most accurately describes the organization of the passage?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 感觉自己萌萌哒 更新于2015-11-03 11:05:30 感谢由 感觉自己萌萌哒 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

第一段:提出现象:目前一些reports报道了两栖动物数量急剧减少+世界上一些濒危动物的灭绝可能性的claim提出:如果这些declines是真的,意味着灭绝的趋势。环境学家认为这是由于人类活动造成的,应该要immediate action 去避免这一问题产生。第二段:评估第一段可能性观点,首先要搞清楚有用但是经常被忽略的2个方面: (1) A declining population和 endangered one不能混淆 (2) chance events灭绝的可能性取决于这个物种的population size ,而不是在这个size的变化方向第三段:怎样正确评估对于生物学家来说,population declines比  extinctions更令人忧心:但是这里对decline也要做好区分,并不是所有的decline都意味着灭绝的,因为之前amphibian的数量在过去也显示很大的浮动。第四段:对第三段提出的观点进行了评价确实没有足够的关于 amphibian populations 的long-term scientific data能够使researchers去甄别出两栖动物的real decline。 A更符合结构 A assess the validity of a certain view B distinguish between two phenomena 无涉及 C identify the causes of a problem 最终没有确定到底是什么原因 D describe a disturbing trend  第一段内容,文章主要是评估对这个trend所产生的假设的,非trend本身的描述 E allay concern about a particular phenomenon 无涉及allay


题目讨论 10条评论)

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    全智贤

    第一段是environmentalists的interpretation,二三段是对其 soundness的examine,最后一段是warning
    0 0 回复 2020-11-07 12:22:15
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      568588kopd回复全智贤

      对着答案解释? a=2,2a=4

      0 0 回复 2021-11-14 12:10:00

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    Jennie在学习

    1⃣️There are recent reports of apparently drastic declines.......These declines, if real, may be signs of ...and many environmentalists have claimed that ...
    2⃣️To evaluate these claims, it is useful to make a preliminary distinction that is far too often ignored. A declining population should not be confused with an endangered one. ......Anecdotal reports of population decreases cannot distinguish among these possibilities...
    3⃣️ ...Unfortunately, long-term data will not soon be forthcoming and postponing environmental action while we wait for it may doom species and whole ecosystems to extinction.
    0 0 回复 2020-09-09 08:15:48
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    286053m

    DOOM species and ecosystem to extinction
    使整个物种走向死亡
    0 0 回复 2020-08-16 11:40:28
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      弹钢琴的小胖手回复286053m

      我就是因为这句话所以才选了c,这难道不是一个prediction吗???

      0 0 回复 2020-10-28 20:11:55

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    194888hphm

    The passage presents environmentalists' interpretation of recent news regarding amphibians, then examines the soundness of that interpretation. Finally, the author warns that postponing environmental action may have disastrous consequences.
    0 0 回复 2020-07-04 09:12:19
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    huang642

    C里的warning = postponing environmental action while we wait for it may doom species and whole ecosystems to extinction.
    1 0 回复 2019-05-09 10:56:51
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    ZoeyYoung

    C. 并没有consequence,因为二三段一致在检验是否population decline和extinction预示着环境降级,且最后一段是在说,因为没有长期的数据支撑,所以不能等到物种都灭绝了再行动(虽然环境是否降级不清楚,但不敢冒险),所以文章中没有预测而是一种担忧所以是“warning is given'
    1 0 回复 2018-09-06 23:26:59
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    Echo2018

    在D,E中纠结,都是“two interpretations/ methods”,因为我觉得作者和the report是两个相反方向,但是第二段第一句,to evaluate the claim,可以看出,还是去论证这个report.
    0 0 回复 2018-07-31 22:17:01
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    yupingh

    想请问C选项如何排除
    0 0 回复 2017-11-11 19:41:47
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      啊想挨打的回复yupingh

      最后一句是warning

      0 0 回复 2017-11-12 15:08:28

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    Gmatlulu

    错选D 但是原文并没有reject
    0 0 回复 2017-11-05 20:28:52
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    神说要有光

    答案给成第一问的了吧··
    0 0 回复 2017-03-11 10:45:01
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