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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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There are recent reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world’s endangered amphibian species. These declines, if real, may be signs of a general trend toward extinction, and many environmentalists have claimed that immediate environmental action is necessary to remedy this “amphibian crisis,” which, in their view, is an indicator of general and catastrophic environmental degradation due to human activity.

To evaluate these claims, it is useful to make a preliminary distinction that is far too often ignored. A declining population should not be confused with an endangered one. An endangered population is always rare, almost always small, and, by definition, under constant threat of extinction even without a proximate cause in human activities. Its disappearance, however unfortunate, should come as no great surprise. Moreover, chance events—which may indicate nothing about the direction of trends in population size—may lead to its extinction. The probability of extinction due to such random factors depends on the population size and is independent of the prevailing direction of change in that size.

For biologists, population declines are potentially more worrisome than extinctions. Persistent declines, especially in large populations, indicate a changed ecological context. Even here, distinctions must again be made among declines that are only apparent (in the sense that they are part of habitual cycles or of normal fluctuations), declines that take a population to some lower but still acceptable level, and those that threaten extinction (e.g., by taking the number of individuals below the minimum viable population). Anecdotal reports of population decreases cannot distinguish among these possibilities, and some amphibian populations have shown strong fluctuations in the past.

It is indisputably true that there is simply not enough long-term scientific data on amphibian populations to enable researchers to identify real declines in amphibian populations. Many fairly common amphibian species declared all but extinct after severe declines in the 1950s and 1960s have subsequently recovered, and so might the apparently declining populations that have generated the current appearance of an amphibian crisis. Unfortunately, longterm data will not soon be forthcoming, and postponing environmental action while we wait for it may doom species and whole ecosystems to extinction.

【OG20-P446-572题】

It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following to be true of the amphibian extinctions that have recently been reported?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 感觉自己萌萌哒 更新于2015-11-03 11:06:22 感谢由 感觉自己萌萌哒 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
题干:作者对 amphibian extinctions 
考作者态度,选项带入,排除法
A They have resulted primarily from human activities causing environmental degradation.
原文相反:n endangered population is always rare, almost always small, and, by definition, under constant threat of extinction even without a proximate cause in human activities.
B They could probably have been prevented if timely action had been taken to protect the habitats of amphibian species.
原文无涉及protect the habitats of amphibian species
C They should not come as a surprise, because amphibian populations generally have been declining for a number of years. 无涉及because之后内容
D They have probably been caused by a combination of chance events.
提到chance events,但是无涉及a combination of chance events
E They do not clearly constitute evidence of general environmental degradation.

题目讨论 10条评论)

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    291926fv

    选项:amphhibian extinctions do not constitute evidence of environmental degradation, 翻译:灭绝不是由环境恶化导致B=C。
    
    文中:没有明说 两栖动物灭绝不是由环境恶化导致,但是有说:人类活动对灭绝不构成直接影响A不=C。
    第一段又说:是人类活动导致的环境恶化A=B。
    0 0 回复 2021-10-26 09:38:10
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    cchloee

    同义改写: It is indisputably true that there is simply not enough long-term scientific data on amphibian populations to enable researchers to identify real declines in amphibian populations.
    0 0 回复 2021-06-19 05:36:57
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    cchloee

    题干文的是作者想法, 直接去第四段定位。 

    这就是一个同义改写“It is indisputably true that there is simply not enough long-term scientific data on amphibian populations to enable researchers to identify real declines in amphibian populations.“。 

    0 0 回复 2021-06-19 05:36:41
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    October

    陷阱题,很多人忽视了题干里的that have recently been reported? 就直接根据extinctions去第2段找了。其实定位句在第1段。
    reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world’s endangered amphibian species.这里reports里的两块,包括题干里的the amphibian extinctions that have recently been reported都属于these declines,注意第2句话里的these指代词。所以要在declines in population找答案,而非在extinction里找。
    这里的extinction和文章区分概念decline in population VS extinction不同,它属于decline的内容
    0 0 回复 2020-11-01 10:16:09
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      October回复October

      author肯定是反驳environmentalists 观点的,所以对environmentalists 观点进行取反。 These declines, if real, may be signs of a general trend toward extinction, and many environmentalists have claimed that immediate environmental action is necessary to remedy this “amphibian crisis,” which, in their view, is an indicator of general and catastrophic environmental degradation due to human activity.

      0 0 回复 2020-11-01 10:17:35

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    October

    陷阱题,reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world’s endangered amphibian species.这里reports里的两块,包括题干里的the amphibian extinctions that have recently been reported都属于these declines,所以要在declines in population找答案,而非在distinction里找。
    0 0 回复 2020-11-01 09:41:47
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      October回复October

      注意,这里的distinction和文章区分概念decline in population VS distinction不同,它属于decline的内容

      0 0 回复 2020-11-01 09:48:22

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    506230whpp

    从文章整体来看,中间两端都是在介绍一些关于“物种减少”“物种灭绝”等的一些知识,真正在表明作者观点的是第一段和第四段。
    
    如果不是很能理解上面这句话,建议全文翻译成中文再理解一下。
    0 0 回复 2020-09-17 20:06:38
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    Tracyqkx

    ron:this is one of the worst sentences i've ever seen.
    0 0 回复 2020-07-23 22:23:36
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    194888hphm

    卧槽,OG对D的解释:原文:MAY(可能) caused by chance event,题干:probably(很可能) been caused by 
    gmat你是爹说啥都对
    5 0 回复 2020-07-04 09:10:01
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      钟迎Grace回复194888hphm

      因为may在英文中是可能,可能由这个原因导致,也可能不是这个原因,表多种可能之一。而probably是指大概率的就是它了,别的原因没多大希望了。 这是有区别的!

      0 0 回复 2020-12-09 15:24:07

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    159144t

    选E,还是因为第一段最后一句:which, in their view, is an indicator of general and catastrophic environmental degradation due to human activity。 作者的态度是反驳第一段的。
    0 0 回复 2019-08-17 22:52:13
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    Chongdi

    D提到chance events,但是无涉及a combination of chance events,我的天这也行?
    1 1 回复 2018-09-07 16:28:30
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      peterbearpan回复Chongdi

      确实是这样,但如果E是一个特别明显的错误选项,我觉得这个也不是不可以选。不过和E比较后发现,E确实更准确。

      0 0 回复 2019-04-02 12:01:41

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      囡囡回复Chongdi

      其实如果理解了第二段后面的话是很好排除的,d的话属于范围扩大,文章只说了chance event是其中一个可以引发的现象,但是并不是唯一也不一定绝对是引发的条件,后面还提到了别的可能。所以他说作者说是很多个chance event引发是错误的

      0 0 回复 2019-07-28 20:30:10

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      Joyce L回复Chongdi

      probably是几乎肯定的意思,但是文中chance events只是一种可能,并不是“几乎肯定”

      0 0 回复 2019-07-29 11:51:06

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